Complex, multinational food supply chains create many opportunities for miscommunication, fraud, adulteration, and mislabeling. To ensure that consumers receive healthy and authentic foods, manufacturers and suppliers need to use supply chain controls that address ingredient identity and purity as well as safety. Digital technologies can play a role in efficient information exchange in these supply chains, but (as with paper records) the contents of digital records can be inaccurate, incomplete, or deceptive. Protecting the integrity of the supply chain requires that each participant along the chain should be able to independently verify that a food or food ingredient is what it is supposed to be. Public standards, such as those in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC), are critical for ensuring that each food or ingredient has the expected identity and purity and that the accompanying records correspond to the physical material. Effective standards contain a description of an ingredient, specifications that define food-grade attributes, and methods that can be used to test for adherence to the specifications. This presentation will include an overview of the role of ingredient standards in protecting food authenticity and supply chain integrity, and will introduce FCC standards as tools for verifying that the supply chain controls are effective.